Global Lithuanian Net:    san-taka station:

Edwin Hubble biography in Lithuanian

Who was Hubble?

We know about the satellite's telescope of Hubble and we've the constant of Hubble. Who was that man who gave his name to these things?

Edwin Hubble was a man who changed our view of the Universe. In 1929 he showed that galaxies are moving away from us with a speed proportional to their distance. The explanation is simple, but revolutionary: the Universe is expanding.

Hubble was born in Missouri in Nov. 20 1889 (died at Sept.28, 1953). His family moved to Chicago in 1898, where at High School he was a promising, though not exceptional, pupil. He was more remarkable for his athletic ability, breaking the Illinois State high jump record. At university too he was an accomplished sportsman playing for the University of Chicago basketball team. He won a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford where he studied law. It was only some time after he returned to the US that he decided his future lay in astronomy (he completed his PhD at Chicago's Yerkes Observatory in 1917).

In the early 1920's Hubble played a key role in establishing just what galaxies are. It was known that some spiral nebulae (fuzzy clouds of light on the night sky) contained individual stars, but there was no consensus as to whether these were relatively small collections of stars within our own galaxy, the 'Milky Way' that stretches right across the sky, or whether these could be separate galaxies, or 'island universes', as big as our own galaxy but much further away. Using the theoretical groundwork of Henrietta Swan-Leavitt and Harlow Shapley, in 1924 Hubble measured the distance to the Andromeda nebula, a faint patch of light with about the same apparent diameter as the moon, and showed it was about a hundred thousand times as far away as the nearest stars. It had to be a separate galaxy, comparable in size our own Milky Way but much further away. He composed (1925) the classification scheme for the structure of galaxies that is still in use today

Hubble was able to measure the distances to only a handful of other galaxies, but he realised that as a rough guide he could take their apparent brightness as an indication of their distance. The speed with which a galaxy was moving toward or away from us was relatively easy to measure due to the Doppler shift of their light. Just as a sound of a racing car becomes lower as it speeds away from us, so the light from a galaxy becomes redder. Though our ears can hear the change of pitch of the racing car engine our eyes cannot detect the tiny red-shift of the light, but with a sensitive spectrograph Hubble could determine the redshift of light from distant galaxies.

He determined the extragalactic distance scale by locating Cepheid Variables in the galaxy M31 from the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1924 and NGC 6822 (in Capricornus) in 1925. Using the galactic period-luminosity relationship (which was actually not quite correct, as was discovered by Baade), he determined distances. Extending distance determinations by using the brightest star in galaxies, he (with Milton Humason) proposed the Hubble Law , which states v = Hl. Hubble's original 1936 value for H of 526 km s-1 Mpc-1 was reduced to 200 km s-1 Mpc-1 after the work of Baade, and to between 50 and 100 km s-1 Mpc-1 when Sandage discovered that some of the "stars" Hubble had identified in distance galaxies were actually H II regions. Hubble gives an account of the discovery of the extragalactic nebulae (galaxies) in Realm of the Nebula (1936).

Because of an incorrect understanding of the Cepheids, this distance was vastly increased years later. He also suggested that the clusters of galaxies are distributed almost uniformly in all directions, although more recent studies show that clusters are combined into huge superclusters of galaxies: at this new level, however, the distribution appears to be even.

Note about a prediction:.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), the noted German philosopher, went beyond Wright's idea, suggesting in 1755 that the small, oval, nebulous objects seen with telescopes were other systems of stars or "island universes."

The observational data available to Hubble by 1929 was sketchy, but whether guided by inspired instinct or outrageous good fortune, he correctly divined a straight line fit between the data points showing the redshift was proportional to the distance (The ratio of the two is known as the Hubble Constant). Since then much improved data has shown the conclusion to be a sound one. Galaxies are receding from us, and one another, as the Universe expands. Within General Relativity, the theory of gravity proposed by Albert Einstein in 1915, the inescapable conclusion was that all the galaxies, and the whole Universe, had originated in a Big Bang, thousands of millions of years in the past. And so the modern science of cosmology was born.

Hubble made his great discoveries on the best telescope in the world at that time - the 100-inch telescope on Mount Wilson in southern California (He was director of Mt. Wilson Observatory) Today his name carried by the best telescope we have, not on Earth, but a satellite observatory orbiting our planet. The Hubble Space Telescope is continuing the work begun by Hubble himself to map our Universe, and producing the most remarkable images of distant galaxies ever seen. A key project of the Hubble Space Telescope is to find the value of the Hubble Constant to greater accuracy, in order to resolve several questions of cosmology.

Included in his writings are A General Study of Diffuse Galactic Nebulas (1926), Extra-Galactic nebulas (1927), Spiral Nebula as a Stellar System (1929), The Realm of the Nebulas (1936), and The Observational Approach to Cosmology (1937).

Cpt.Astera's advisor

Your notes and messages you can leave at end of main (in English) san-taka station page.


UFO phenomenas over and under Lithuanian sky
NSO apsireiškimai ir neįprasti fenomenai Lietuvos danguje ir po juo

We are ready to meet all phenomena hard to explain what happen in the night sky and other fields of nature and seen in the dreams, even.

All your notices, questions and messages You can send by E-mail: or to leave at end of this page.

san-taka station

UFO sightings and other phenomenas in/under Lithuanian sky. Please inform us about everything you noticed and find unexplainable in the night sky or even during your night dreams, or in the other fields of life.

Review of our site in English

UFO homepage
Global Lithuanian Net

Edwin Hubble


Edwin Hubble

Edvinas Hablas at Mt.Palomar